Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Social Participation of High Risk-Adults in Germany During the COVID-19 Pandemic

2022 | journal article; research paper. A publication of Göttingen

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​Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Social Participation of High Risk-Adults in Germany During the COVID-19 Pandemic​
Schröder, D. ; Heesen, G.; Heinemann, S. ; Hummers, E. ; Jablonka, A.; Steffens, S. & Mikuteit, M. et al.​ (2022) 
Frontiers in Public Health10.​ DOI: 

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Schröder, Dominik ; Heesen, Gloria; Heinemann, Stephanie ; Hummers, Eva ; Jablonka, Alexandra; Steffens, Sandra; Mikuteit, Marie; Niewolik, Jacqueline; Kallusky, Jonathan; Müller, Frank ; Overbeck, Tobias R.
Background: Restrictions to contain the COVID-19 pandemic affect the social participation of people worldwide. Especially those at high risk for a severe disease tend to abstain from social gatherings. While there are a few questionnaires to measure social participation in elderly or chronic patients, a valid survey instrument that includes pandemic-related social participation is needed. Methods We developed a social participation questionnaire that aims to assess pandemic-related restrictions in social participation. Items were developed using a theory and literature-based approach and then compiled in a discursive process involving experts and lay people. This was followed by the validation of the questionnaire through a cross-sectional survey on 431 individuals. Items with low item-total correlations and low factor loadings using exploratory factor analysis [EFA] were excluded. Using EFA on the remaining items, the factor structure was retrieved and tested with a confirmatory factor analysis [CFA]. Internal consistency was assessed with Chronbachs α. Results Initially, 27 items were developed which were used for validation. 13 items were excluded due to low item-total correlations and factors loadings. EFA of the remaining 14 items revealed three factors which were identified as domains “active social participation,” “wellbeing,” and “restrictions”. CFA showed an acceptable model fit using the three-dimensional structure. Chronbachs α of 0.81 and McDonalds Ω of 0.87 indicate good internal consistency. Correlation analysis showed an association between the developed questionnaire and previously-established participation and mental health scales. Conclusion This study suggests that our 14 item questionnaire is of high reliability and validity and can be used to measure social participation during a pandemic.
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Frontiers in Public Health 
DEFEnse Against COVID-19 STudy 
Institut für Allgemeinmedizin 



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