Biological durability of pine wood

2022 | journal article; research paper. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​Brischke C, Alfredsen G. ​Biological durability of pine wood​. ​​Wood Material Science & Engineering. ​2022;:​​1​-15​. ​doi:10.1080/17480272.2022.2104134. 

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Brischke, Christian ; Alfredsen, Gry
The genus Pinus represents more than a hundred different tree species, most of them forming stems that can be commercially utilised for both timber and wood pulp industry. Pines are native to most of the Northern Hemisphere, while introduced and often naturalized in the Southern Hemisphere. The sapwood of pines is considered ‘not durable’ but generally easy to impregnate. On the contrary, the coloured heartwood of pines is difficult to impregnate and considered ‘less to moderately durable’ against decay fungi, but due to varying content and composition of extractives, both moisture performance and inherent durability vary within and between species. This study reviewed the literature to quantify the extent of variability of pine wood and its potential causes. Literature data from durability tests performed under laboratory and field conditions made it possible to compile reference factors for 26 pine species. The inter-species variation of biological durability is more prominent in above-ground exposure (0.7–14.9 times higher compared to the non-durable pine sapwood) compared to soil contact scenarios (1.0–2.4). The latter might be explained by fungicidal and hydrophobic extractives of pines, which play a more dominant role in above-ground exposure compared to soil exposure with permanent wetting.
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Wood Material Science & Engineering 
Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie ; Burckhardt-Institut ; Abteilung Holzbiologie und Holzprodukte 
the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport 10.13039/501100005989
The Ministry of the Environment 10.13039/501100003562
The Forestry Commissioners
Research Council of Norway 10.13039/501100005416
The French Environment and Energy Management Agency
The French National Research Agency 10.13039/501100001665
The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning 10.13039/501100001862
Swedish Energy Agency 10.13039/501100004527
Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems 10.13039/501100001858
Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture 10.13039/501100005908
Agency for Renewable Resources 10.13039/501100010812
European Union’s Horizon 2020 
the German Ministry of Food and Agriculture
Agency of Renewable Resources 10.13039/501100010812



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