The evolution of insular woodiness

2022 | journal article. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​The evolution of insular woodiness​
Zizka, A.; Onstein, R. E.; Rozzi, R.; Weigelt, P. ; Kreft, H. ; Steinbauer, M. J. & Bruelheide, H. et al.​ (2022) 
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences119(37) art. e2208629119​.​ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2208629119 

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Authors
Zizka, Alexander; Onstein, Renske E.; Rozzi, Roberto; Weigelt, Patrick ; Kreft, Holger ; Steinbauer, Manuel J.; Bruelheide, Helge; Lens, Frederic
Abstract
Insular woodiness (IW)—the evolutionary transition from herbaceousness toward woodiness on islands—is one of the most iconic features of island floras. Since pioneering work by Darwin and Wallace, a number of drivers of IW have been proposed, such as 1) competition for sunlight requiring plants with taller and stronger woody stems and 2) drought favoring woodiness to safeguard root-to-shoot water transport. Alternatively, IW may be the indirect result of increased lifespan related to 3) a favorable aseasonal climate and/or 4) a lack of large native herbivores. However, information on the occurrence of IW is fragmented, hampering tests of these potential drivers. Here, we identify 1,097 insular woody species on 375 islands and infer at least 175 evolutionary transitions on 31 archipelagos, concentrated in six angiosperm families. Structural equation models reveal that the insular woody species richness on oceanic islands correlates with a favorable aseasonal climate, followed by increased drought and island isolation (approximating competition). When continental islands are also included, reduced herbivory pressure by large native mammals, increased drought, and island isolation are most relevant. Our results illustrate different trajectories leading to rampant convergent evolution toward IW and further emphasize archipelagos as natural laboratories of evolution, where similar abiotic or biotic conditions replicated evolution of similar traits.
Issue Date
2022
Journal
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 
Organization
Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie ; Burckhardt-Institut ; Abteilung Biodiversität, Makroökologie und Biogeographie 
ISSN
0027-8424
eISSN
1091-6490
Language
English
Sponsor
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 501100001659
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft 501100001659

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