Comparison of Individual Sensors in the Electronic Nose for Stress Detection in Forest Stands

2023 | journal article. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

Jump to: Cite & Linked | Documents & Media | Details | Version history

Cite this publication

​Comparison of Individual Sensors in the Electronic Nose for Stress Detection in Forest Stands​
Hüttnerová, T.; Paczkowski, S.; Neubert, T.; Jirošová, A. & Surový, P.​ (2023) 
Sensors23(4) pp. 2001​.​ DOI: 

Documents & Media

sensors-23-02001.pdf8.6 MBUnknown



Hüttnerová, Tereza; Paczkowski, Sebastian; Neubert, Tarek; Jirošová, Anna; Surový, Peter
Forests are increasingly exposed to natural disturbances, including drought, wildfires, pest outbreaks, and windthrow events. Due to prolonged droughts in the last years in Europe, European forest stands significantly lost vitality, and their health condition deteriorated, leading to high mortality rates, especially, but not limited to, Norway spruce. This phenomenon is growing, and new regions are being affected; thus, it is necessary to identify stress in the early stages when actions can be taken to protect the forest and living trees. Current detection methods are based on field walks by forest workers or deploying remote sensing methods for coverage of the larger territory. These methods are based on changes in spectral reflectance that can detect attacks only at an advanced stage after the significant changes in the canopy. An innovative approach appears to be a method based on odor mapping, specifically detecting chemical substances which are present in the forest stands and indicate triggering of constitutive defense of stressed trees. The bark beetle attacking a tree, for example, produces a several times higher amount of defense-related volatile organic compounds. At the same time, the bark beetle has an aggregation pheromone to attract conspecifics to overcome the tree defense by mass attack. These substances can be detected using conventional chemical methods (solid-phase microextraction fibers and cartridges), and it is proven that they are detectable by dogs. The disadvantage of classic chemical analysis methods is the long sampling time in the forest, and at the same time, the results must be analyzed in the laboratory using a gas chromatograph. A potential alternative novel device appears to be an electronic nose, which is designed to detect chemical substances online (for example, dangerous gas leaks or measure concentrations above landfills, volcanic activity, etc.). We tested the possibility of early-stage stress detection in the forest stands using an electronic nose Sniffer4D and compared the individual sensors in it for detecting the presence of attacked and dead trees. Our results indicate the promising applicability of the electronic nose for stress mapping in the forest ecosystem, and more data collection could prove this approach.
Issue Date
Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie ; Burckhardt-Institut ; Abteilung Arbeitswissenschaft und Verfahrenstechnologie 
Improvement in Quality of the Internal Grant Scheme at CZU



Social Media