Herbivore and pathogen effects on tree growth are additive, but mediated by tree diversity and plant traits

2017-09 | journal article. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​Herbivore and pathogen effects on tree growth are additive, but mediated by tree diversity and plant traits​
Schuldt, A. ; Hönig, L.; Li, Y.; Fichtner, A.; Härdtle, W.; von Oheimb, G. & Welk, E. et al.​ (2017) 
Ecology and Evolution7(18) pp. 7462​-7474​.​ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3292 

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Schuldt, Andreas ; Hönig, Lydia; Li, Ying; Fichtner, Andreas; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Bruelheide, Helge
Herbivores and fungal pathogens are key drivers of plant community composition and functioning. The effects of herbivores and pathogens are mediated by the diversity and functional characteristics of their host plants. However, the combined effects of herbivory and pathogen damage, and their consequences for plant performance, have not yet been addressed in the context of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research. We analyzed the relationships between herbivory, fungal pathogen damage and their effects on tree growth in a large-scale forest-biodiversity experiment. Moreover, we tested whether variation in leaf trait and climatic niche characteristics among tree species influenced these relationships. We found significant positive effects of herbivory on pathogen damage, and vice versa. These effects were attenuated by tree species richness-because herbivory increased and pathogen damage decreased with increasing richness-and were most pronounced for species with soft leaves and narrow climatic niches. However, herbivory and pathogens had contrasting, independent effects on tree growth, with pathogens decreasing and herbivory increasing growth. The positive herbivory effects indicate that trees might be able to (over-)compensate for local damage at the level of the whole tree. Nevertheless, we found a dependence of these effects on richness, leaf traits and climatic niche characteristics of the tree species. This could mean that the ability for compensation is influenced by both biodiversity loss and tree species identity-including effects of larger-scale climatic adaptations that have been rarely considered in this context. Our results suggest that herbivory and pathogens have additive but contrasting effects on tree growth. Considering effects of both herbivory and pathogens may thus help to better understand the net effects of damage on tree performance in communities differing in diversity. Moreover, our study shows how species richness and species characteristics (leaf traits and climatic niches) can modify tree growth responses to leaf damage under real-world conditions.
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Ecology and Evolution 
Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie ; Burckhardt-Institut ; Abteilung Waldnaturschutz 



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