Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

2014-02-10 | journal article; research paper. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway​
Hernandez, V. H.; Gehrt, A. ; Reuter, K.; Jing, Z.; Jeschke, M. ; Schulz, A. M. & Hoch, G.  et al.​ (2014) 
Journal of Clinical Investigation124(3) pp. 1114​-1129​.​ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI69050 

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Authors
Hernandez, Victor H.; Gehrt, Anna ; Reuter, Kirsten; Jing, Zhizi; Jeschke, Marcus ; Schulz, Alejandro Mendoza; Hoch, Gerhard ; Bartels, Matthias ; Vogt, Gerhard; Garnham, Carolyn W.; Yawo, Hiromu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Augustine, George J.; Bamberg, Ernst; Kügler, Sebastian ; Salditt, Tim ; Hoz, Livia de; Strenzke, Nicola ; Moser, Tobias 
Abstract
Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. In contrast, optical stimulation can be spatially confined, which may improve frequency resolution. Here, we used animal models to characterize optogenetic stimulation, which is the optical stimulation of neurons genetically engineered to express the light-gated ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear excitation by recording local field potentials (LFPs) in the inferior colliculus in response to suprathreshold optical, acoustic, and electrical stimuli indicated that optogenetic stimulation achieves better frequency resolution than monopolar electrical stimulation. Virus-mediated expression of a ChR2 variant with greater light sensitivity in SGNs reduced the amount of light required for responses and allowed neuronal spiking following stimulation up to 60 Hz. Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics.
Issue Date
10-February-2014
Journal
Journal of Clinical Investigation 
Organization
Institut für Röntgenphysik 
Working Group
RG Salditt (Structure of Biomolecular Assemblies and X-Ray Physics) 
ISSN
0021-9738
eISSN
1558-8238
Language
English
Subject(s)
x-ray imaging; biomedical tomography

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