Cacao trees under different shade tree shelter: effects on water use

2014 | journal article; research paper

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​Cacao trees under different shade tree shelter: effects on water use​
Köhler, M. ; Hanf, A.; Barus, H.; Hölscher, D.   & Hendrayanto, A.​ (2014) 
Agroforestry Systems88(1) pp. 63​-73​.​ DOI: 

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Köhler, Michael ; Hanf, Andrea; Barus, Henry; Hölscher, Dirk ; Hendrayanto, A.
We asked how shade tree admixture affects cacao water use in agroforests. In Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, cacao and shade tree sap flux was monitored in a monoculture, in a stand with admixed Gliricidia trees and in a mixture with a multi-species tree assemblage, with both mixtures having similar canopy openness. A Jarvis type sap flux model suggested a distinct difference in sap flux response to changes in vapor pressure deficit and radiation among cacao trees in the individual cultivation systems. We argue that differences originate from stomatal control of transpiration in the monoculture and altered radiation conditions and a different degree of uncoupling of the VPD from the bulk atmosphere inside shaded stands. Probably due to high sap flux variability among trees, these differences however did not result in significantly altered average daily cacao water use rates which were 16 L day−1 in the multi-species assemblage and 22 L day−1 in the other plots. In shaded stands, water use of single cacao trees increased with decreasing canopy gap fraction in the overstory since shading enhanced vegetative growth of cacao fostering transpiration per unit ground area. Estimated transpiration rates of the cacao tree layer were further controlled by stem density and amounted to 1.2 mm day−1 in the monoculture, 2.2 mm day−1 for cacao in the cacao/Gliricidia stand, and 1.1 mm day−1 in the cacao/multi-species stand. The additional transpiration by the shade trees is estimated at 0.5 mm day−1 for the Gliricidia and 1 mm day−1 for the mixed-species cultivation system.
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Agroforestry Systems 
SFB 990: Ökologische und sozioökonomische Funktionen tropischer Tieflandregenwald-Transformationssysteme (Sumatra, Indonesien) 
SFB 990 | A | A02: Wassernutzungseigenschaften von Bäumen und Palmen in Regenwald-Transformationssystemen Zusammenfassung 
Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie ; Burckhardt-Institut ; Abteilung Waldbau und Waldökologie der Tropen 



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