Water use characteristics of cacao and Gliricidiatrees in an agroforest in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

2009 | journal article

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​Water use characteristics of cacao and Gliricidiatrees in an agroforest in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia​
Köhler, M. ; Dierick, D.; Schwendenmann, L.   & Hölscher, D. ​ (2009) 
Ecohydrology2(4) pp. 520​-529​.​ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.67 

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Köhler, Michael ; Dierick, Diego; Schwendenmann, Luitgard ; Hölscher, Dirk 
Water use characteristics of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and Gliricidia sepium shade trees were studied in an agroforest on Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objectives were: (1) to identify environmental and tree structural factors controlling water use, (2) to analyse the effect of shade tree cover on cacao water use and (3) to estimate stand level transpiration. Sap flux density was measured in up to 18 trees per species and described with a Jarvis-type model. Model parameters suggested a 49% higher maximum sap flux density in cacao than in Gliricidia and species differences in the response to vapour pressure deficit and radiation. Tree water use was positively related to tree diameter in both species, but this relationship tended to differ between species. In cacao trees maximal tree water use increased with decreasing canopy gap fraction above the trees (R2adj = 0·39, p = 0·04). This was paralleled by an increase of cacao stem diameter and leaf area with decreasing gap fraction. Maximum water use rate per unit crown area of cacao was 13% higher than that of Gliricidia. At the stand level the average transpiration rate was estimated at 1·5 mm day−1 per unit ground area, 70% of which was contributed to by cacao. We conclude that, in the given stand, species differed substantially in water use characteristics, while estimated stand transpiration is in line with findings from other studies for cacao stands. Shade trees may enhance stand transpiration through own water use and additionally by increasing water use rates of cacao trees
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Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie ; Burckhardt-Institut ; Abteilung Waldbau und Waldökologie der Tropen 



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