The type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase family of the oleaginous microalga Lobosphaera incisa

2018 | journal article. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​The type 2 acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase family of the oleaginous microalga Lobosphaera incisa​
Zienkiewicz, K.; Benning, U.; Siegler, H. & Feussner, I.​ (2018) 
BMC Plant Biology18(1) art. 298​.​ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-018-1510-3 

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Authors
Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Benning, Urs; Siegler, Heike; Feussner, Ivo
Abstract
Abstract Background Oleaginous microalgae are promising sources of energy-rich triacylglycerols (TAGs) for direct use for food, feed and industrial applications. Lobosphaera incisa is a fresh water unicellular alga, which in response to nutrient stress accumulates a high amount of TAGs with a high proportion of arachidonic acid (ARA). The final committed step of de novo TAG biosynthesis is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs), which add a fatty acid (FA) to the final sn-3 position of diacylglycerol (DAG). Results Genome analysis revealed the presence of five putative DGAT isoforms in L. incisa, including one DGAT of type 1, three DGATs of type 2 and a single isoform of a type 3 DGAT. For LiDGAT1, LiDGAT2.1, LiDGAT2.2 and LiDGAT2.3 enzyme activity was confirmed by expressing them in the TAG-deficient yeast strain H1246. Feeding experiments of yeast transformants with fatty acids suggest a broad substrate specificity spectrum for LiDGAT1. A significant TAG production in response to exogenous ARA was found for LiDGAT2.2. Cellular localization of the four type 1 and type 2 DGATs expressed in yeast revealed that they all localize to distinct ER domains. A prominent association of LiDGAT1 with ER domains in close proximity to forming lipid droplets (LDs) was also observed. Conclusions The data revealed a distinct molecular, functional and cellular nature of type 1 and type 2 DGATs from L. incisa, with LiDGAT1 being a major contributor to the TAG pool. LiDGATs of type 2 might be in turn involved in the incorporation of unusual fatty acids into TAG and thus regulate the composition of TAG. This report provides a valuable resource for the further research of microalgae DGATs oriented towards production of fresh-water strains with higher oil content of valuable composition, not only for oil industry but also for human and animal nutrition.
Issue Date
2018
Journal
BMC Plant Biology 
Project
info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/266401/EU/Genetic Improvement of Algae for Value Added Products/GIAVAP
Organization
Albrecht-von-Haller-Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften ; Abteilung Biochemie der Pflanze ; International Center for Advanced Studies of Energy Conversion ; Göttinger Zentrum für Molekulare Biowissenschaften 
Language
English

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