Predicting antibiotic prescription after symptomatic treatment for urinary tract infection: development of a model using data from an RCT in general practice

2016 | journal article; research paper. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​Gágyor, I., Haasenritter, J., Bleidorn, J., McIsaac, W., Schmiemann, G., Hummers-Pradier, E. & Himmel, W. (2016). ​Predicting antibiotic prescription after symptomatic treatment for urinary tract infection: development of a model using data from an RCT in general practice. British Journal of General Practice66(645), ​E234​-E240​. ​doi: 

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Gágyor, Ildikó ; Haasenritter, Jörg; Bleidorn, Jutta; McIsaac, Warren; Schmiemann, Guido; Hummers-Pradier, Eva ; Himmel, Wolfgang 
Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is often treated with antibiotics, resulting in increasing resistance levels. A randomised controlled trial showed that two-thirds of females with UTI treated symptomatically recovered without subsequent antibiotic treatment. Aim To investigate whether there are differences between females with a UTI who were subsequently prescribed antibiotics and those who recovered with symptomatic treatment only, and to develop a model to predict those who can safely and effectively be treated symptomatically. Design and setting This is a subgroup analysis of females assigned to ibuprofen in a UTI trial in general practices. Method Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to select variables for a prediction model, The discriminative value of the model was estimated by the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) and the effects of different thresholds were calculated within the model predicting antibiotic prescription and need for follow-up visits. Results Of the 235 females in the ibuprofen group, 79 were subsequently prescribed antibiotics within 28 days of follow-up. The final model included five predictors: urgency/frequency, impaired daily activities, and positive dipstick test results for erythrocytes, leucocytes, and nitrite. The AUC was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.80). A reasonable threshold for antibiotic initiation would result in 58% of females presenting with UTI being treated with antibiotics. Of the remaining females, only 6% would return to the practice because of symptomatic treatment failure. Conclusion The present model revealed moderately good accuracy and could be the basis for a decision aid for GPs and females to find the treatment option that fits best.
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British Journal of General Practice 
Institut für Allgemeinmedizin 
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