Novel Approaches for Species Concepts and Delimitation in Polyploids and Hybrids

2022 | journal article; research paper. A publication with affiliation to the University of Göttingen.

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​Novel Approaches for Species Concepts and Delimitation in Polyploids and Hybrids​
Hörandl, E.​ (2022) 
Plants11(2) pp. 204​.​ DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants11020204 

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Authors
Hörandl, Elvira
Abstract
Hybridization and polyploidization are important processes for plant evolution. However, classification of hybrid or polyploid species has been notoriously difficult because of the complexity of processes and different evolutionary scenarios that do not fit with classical species concepts. Polyploid complexes are formed via combinations of allopolyploidy, autopolyploidy and homoploid hybridization with persisting sexual reproduction, resulting in many discrete lineages that have been classified as species. Polyploid complexes with facultative apomixis result in complicated net-work like clusters, or rarely in agamospecies. Various case studies illustrate the problems that apply to traditional species concepts to hybrids and polyploids. Conceptual progress can be made if lineage formation is accepted as an inevitable consequence of meiotic sex, which is established already in the first eukaryotes as a DNA restoration tool. The turnaround of the viewpoint that sex forms species as lineages helps to overcome traditional thinking of species as “units”. Lineage formation and self-sustainability is the prerequisite for speciation and can also be applied to hybrids and polyploids. Species delimitation is aided by the improved recognition of lineages via various novel -omics methods, by understanding meiosis functions, and by recognizing functional phenotypes by considering morphological-physiological-ecological adaptations.
Hybridization and polyploidization are important processes for plant evolution. However, classification of hybrid or polyploid species has been notoriously difficult because of the complexity of processes and different evolutionary scenarios that do not fit with classical species concepts. Polyploid complexes are formed via combinations of allopolyploidy, autopolyploidy and homoploid hybridization with persisting sexual reproduction, resulting in many discrete lineages that have been classified as species. Polyploid complexes with facultative apomixis result in complicated net-work like clusters, or rarely in agamospecies. Various case studies illustrate the problems that apply to traditional species concepts to hybrids and polyploids. Conceptual progress can be made if lineage formation is accepted as an inevitable consequence of meiotic sex, which is established already in the first eukaryotes as a DNA restoration tool. The turnaround of the viewpoint that sex forms species as lineages helps to overcome traditional thinking of species as “units”. Lineage formation and self-sustainability is the prerequisite for speciation and can also be applied to hybrids and polyploids. Species delimitation is aided by the improved recognition of lineages via various novel -omics methods, by understanding meiosis functions, and by recognizing functional phenotypes by considering morphological-physiological-ecological adaptations.
Issue Date
2022
Journal
Plants 
eISSN
2223-7747
eISSN
2223-7747
Language
English
Sponsor
Open-Access-Publikationsfonds 2022

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