Major societal challenges such as health, climate change, energy, food availability, migration and peace depend on the contributions of a distributed and diverse international network of researchers and subject experts. The aim of open science is to improve the accessibility of research outputs, including articles, data and other research objects, so that researchers, industry and the public can make use of, build on, and ensure the validity of these research outputs.Among research outputs, research data are often the most diverse -as diverse as the international network of experts that perform research. Datasets may be small or large, simple or complex, structured or unstructured. Data may stem from hundreds of different subjects, may be produced by numerous methodologies, and exist in a plethora of different formats. The diversity of data is also characterized by a variety of data management practices, of varying quality and comprehensiveness.